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Cancer Types - Carcinoma, Sarcoma, Leukemia, Lymphoma etc.

Cancer Types - Carcinoma, Sarcoma, Leukemia, Lymphoma etc.


Cancer is the second deadliest disease in America, behind heart disease—but the term “cancer” actually lumps over 100 diseases into one. All cancers have a lot in common: Mutations make cells change and grow out of control, and are often caused by some combination of genetic and environmental factors. Most people differentiate types of cancer by where they appear in the body, such as breast cancer or prostate cancer.
But there’s another way to group types of cancer: Not just by where they appear, but what kind of cells they attack. This breaks the disease into several common types of cancer: Carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Learning how cancer works can give you a better understanding of the disease—that’s important because cancer will strike one in three people.

Carcinoma


Carcinoma is a category of types of cancer that develop from epithelial cells.[1] Specifically, a carcinoma is a cancer that begins in a tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body, and that arises from cells originating in the endodermal, mesodermal[2] or ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis.
Carcinomas occur when the DNA of a cell is damaged or altered and the cell begins to grow uncontrollably and become malignant. It is from the Greek: καρκίνωμα, romanized: karkinoma, lit. 'sore, ulcer, cancer' (itself derived from karkinos  meaning crab).

Sarcoma


Sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that arises in the bone and soft tissue, which includes fat, muscles, blood vessels, nerves and fibrous tissue. Sarcomas can develop in any part of the body, though they are most commonly seen in the arms and legs.

There are very few known risk factors for sarcomas. Some causes and risk factors may include:
• Past radiotherapy treatment
• Family history of cancer syndromes
• Damaged lymphatic system
Some chemicals are also thought to be associated with sarcoma, though this has not been proven. Smoking, diet and exercise are not linked to developing sarcomas.

Melanoma


Melanoma is one of the easier types of cancer to spot, as it usually only shows up on your skin. “Melanoma is a type of cancer that starts in skin cells that contain pigment,” Dr. Norton says. “This is why they are often dark or black.” This is the deadliest type of skin cancer: Although it’s rarer than basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, melanoma is more likely to grow and spread. It’s also responsible for the most skin cancer deaths.

According to the American Cancer Society, most cases of melanoma could be preventable. “Excessive sun exposure is the biggest risk factor for melanoma,” Dr. Norton says. In other words, avoid tanning beds, cover up when you’re outdoors, and wear your sunscreen—these are the best types of sunscreen. Caucasian people tend to get melanoma more often due to their light skin, which is more susceptible to the sun’s damaging UV rays. Although melanoma is more likely in older people, it’s still one of the most common cancers in the under-30 crowd. Before age 50, melanoma is more common in women, but by age 65, twice as many men get melanoma compared to women; by age 80 men have triple the rate of women. Overall, melanoma is the sixth most common cancer.

Surgery alone can cure melanoma if doctors catch it early. Among the 51 things dermatologists need you to know about skin cancer, perhaps most important is checking yourself regularly using the ABCDEs: Look for moles that are asymmetrical, have an irregular border, contain different colors, are larger in diameter than a pencil eraser, and evolve in size, shape, or color. If you notice anything strange, make an appointment with a dermatologist. If melanoma has spread, treatment may also require chemo, radiation, or targeted therapies.

Lymphoma


Lymphoma is a cancer that develops in the white blood cells (lymphocytes) of the lymphatic system, which is part of the body's immune system.

The lymphatic system includes a network of small channels similar to blood vessels that circulate fluid (called lymph), lymph nodes (also called glands), bone marrow and several organs, all of which are made up of lymphocytes.

There are two major types of lymphoma: Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin (NHL), each of which has several subtypes. Hodgkin lymphoma—also known as Hodgkin's disease—is far less common than non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Individual lymphomas differ in how they behave, spread and respond to treatment. The type of lymphoma is determined by examining some of the cancer cells under a microscope. When an abnormal cell called a Reed-Sternberg cell is present, the lymphoma is classified as Hodgkin. When it is not present, the cancer is classified as non-Hodgkin.

Symptoms of lymphoma may include:

enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin
unexplained weight loss
fever
drenching night sweats
generalized itching
fatigue
loss of appetite
coughing or trouble breathing
pain in the abdomen, chest or bones
swollen abdomen
feeling full after only a small amount of food
shortness of breath or cough

Leukemia


The symptoms of leukemia may be very subtle at first and include fatigue, unexplained fever, abnormal bruising, headaches, excessive bleeding (such as frequent nosebleeds), unintentional weight loss, and frequent infections, to name a few. These, however, can be due to a wide range of causes. If related to leukemia, symptoms may hint at the type of the disease that is present, but many symptoms overlap and are not this specific. Leukemia cannot be diagnosed based on symptoms alone, but an awareness of them can suggest when further evaluation is needed.
The symptoms of leukemia in adults and children are similar. The most common symptoms are:

Fatigue
Frequent infections
Enlarged lymph nodes
Unexplained fevers
Night sweats
Bruising and excess bleeding
Abdominal pain
Bone and joint pain
Headaches and other neurological symptoms
Unintentional weight loss1
Because many of these symptoms are vague and non-specific, people tend to explain them away, saying that they feel like they are catching a cold or they’ve been feeling run-down lately.

Source.

*.https://www.rd.com/health/conditions/types-of-cancer/
*https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinoma

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