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What Causes Nosebleeds and How to Treat.

Nose bleeding.


Most nosebleeds are not usually serious and can be stopped with home treatment. Most nosebleeds occur in the front of the nose (anterior epistaxis) and involve only one nostril. Some blood may drain down the back of the nose into the throat. Many things may make a nosebleed more likely.
Changes in the environment. For example:
Cold, dry climates; low humidity
High altitude
Chemical fumes
Smoke
Injury to the nose. For example:
Hitting or bumping the nose
Blowing or picking the nose
Piercing the nose
An object in the nose. This is more common in children, who may put things up their noses, but may be found in adults, especially after an automobile accident, when a piece of glass may have entered the nose.
Medical problems. For example:
An abnormal structure inside the nose, such as nasal polyps or a deviated nasal septum
Colds, allergies, or sinus infections
High blood pressure
Kidney disease
Liver disease
Blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia, leukemia, thrombocytopenia, or von Willebrand's disease
Abnormal blood vessels in the nose, such as with Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. This syndrome is passed in families (inherited). The abnormal blood vessels make it hard to control a nosebleed.
Medicines. For example:
Those that affect blood clotting, such as aspirin, other blood thinners, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Cold and allergy medicines
Oxygen
Nasal inhalers, such as Afrin
Steroid nasal sprays
Nasal abuse of illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines.

A less common but more serious type of nosebleed starts in the back of the nose (posterior epistaxis) and often involves both nostrils. Large amounts of blood may run down the back of the throat. Posterior epistaxis occurs more often in older adults because of other health conditions they may have. Medical treatment will be needed to control the bleeding from posterior epistaxis.


Causes of Nose bleeding.


There are two types of nosebleeds:

anterior, and
posterior.
The type of nosebleed that you have will depend on where the bleeding originates.

Anterior nosebleeds.

If you have an anterior nosebleed, the bleeding comes from the lower septum (the wall between the two nose channels), just inside your nose. This part of the nose, which is sometimes known as Littles' area, has a lot of delicate blood vessels inside it.

The blood vessels are supplied with blood from your carotid arteries (the two main arteries in your neck which supply the blood flow to your brain). These delicate blood vessels are easily damaged and if they are knocked they will begin bleeding.

Sometimes, the cause of anterior nosebleeds is unknown (idiopathic). However, the main causes include:

picking your nose, particularly if you scratch the inside of your nose with a sharp fingernail,
blowing your nose very hard,
a minor injury to your nose,
a deviated septum (a crooked nose, either present from birth or due to an injury),
a cold or flu (influenza),
sinusitis (an infectionan of the small, air-filled cavities inside your cheekbones and forehead),
a blocked or stuffy nose that is often caused by an infection,
a dry nose that is caused by dry air in a hot climate or heated indoor air,
hayfever or other allergies,
high altitude,
excessive use of nasal decongestants,
use of the illegal drug, cocaine.
Children almost always have anterior nosebleeds and these are easily treated at home.

Posterior nosebleeds.

A posterior nosebleed is where the bleeding is heavy and comes from further back, and higher up your nose. Posterior nosebleeds are more common in adults than in children and they may need medical attention.

During posterior nosebleeds, the bleeding originates from branches of the arteries which supply blood to your nasal cavity (the space inside your nose between the roof of your mouth and your brain).

This type of nosebleed can be more serious. If your nosebleed has resulted from a large blow to your head, or a fall, you should seek medical attention because you may have broken your nose. 

Other possible causes of posterior nosebleeds include:

recent nasal surgery,
high blood pressure,
hardened arteries (from fat, cholesterol, or other substances that build up in your arteries), 
a calcium deficiency, 
exposure to irritating chemicals,
a tumour in the nasal cavity, and
certain medicines, such as aspirin, medicines for arthritis, and anticoagulants (blood-thinning medicines), such as warfarin and heparin.
In some cases, nosebleeds can be a symptom of another condition such as: 

a blood clotting abnormality - for example haemophilia (an inherited condition that affects the blood's ability to clot) or von Willebrand's disease (an inherited disorder that causes bleeding and bruising) , or l
Leukaemia (although this is rare and you are likely to have other symptoms as well).


How To Stop A Nosebleed.


1.Relax and lean forward so you don’t get any blood in your mouth—spit it out if you do.

2.Sit or stand straight up because you don’t want to accidentally swallow more blood.

3.Consider spraying a decongestant into your nose. It will tighten the nose’s blood vessels which will quickly slow down or stop the bleeding.

4.Pinch the soft part of your nose with your index finger and thumb. Try this for five to 10 minutes. If your nose is still bleeding after that, continue to pinch until it stops.

5.Continue to stay upright.

6.Wrap a towel around ice or frozen vegetables and apply it to your nose.

Source.

*.https://www.peacehealth.org/medical-topics/id/nosbd
*.https://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/e/epistaxis/causes-of-a-nosebleed.html
*.https://www.aentassociates.com/tips-for-stopping-a-nosebleed-fast/

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