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prostate cancer causes:What are the warning signs of prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer


Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm.According to The National Institute on Aging, prostate problems are common after age 50.
Prostate cancer is the second-most diagnosed cancer in American men. About 80 percent of prostate cancers are diagnosed at a localized stage, which means that the cancer hasn’t spread outside of the prostate. The average age at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis is about 66. 

Compared with other men, African-American men and men with a family history of the disease are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer. A man with a father or brother who had prostate cancer is twice as likely to develop the disease.

Causes of prostate cancer


All men are at risk for prostate cancer. Out of every 100 American men, about 13 will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about 2 to 3 men will die from prostate cancer.

The following factors may raise a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer:

1.Age: 


The risk of prostate cancer increases with age, especially after age 50. Around 60% of prostate cancers are diagnosed in people who are 65 or older. Older adults who are diagnosed with prostate cancer can face unique challenges, specifically with regard to cancer treatment. For more information, please visit Cancer.Net’s section about aging and cancer.

2.Race: 


Black men in the United States, and other men of African ancestry, are diagnosed with prostate cancer more than men of other races. Black men are more likely to die from prostate cancer than white men.

3.North American or northern European location: 


 Prostate cancer occurs most often in North America and northern Europe. It also appears that prostate cancer is increasing among Asian people living in urbanized environments, such as Hong Kong, Singapore, and North American and European cities, particularly among those who have a lifestyle with less physical activity and a less healthy diet.

4.Family history:


Prostate cancer that runs in a family, called familial prostate cancer, makes up about 20% of all prostate cancers. This type of prostate cancer develops because of a combination of shared genes and shared environmental or lifestyle factors.

Hereditary prostate cancer, which is inheriting the risk from a relative, is rare and accounts for about 5% of all cases. Hereditary prostate cancer occurs when changes in genes, or mutations, are passed down within a family from 1 generation to the next. Hereditary prostate cancer may be suspected if a family history includes any of the following characteristics:

✓3 or more first-degree relatives with prostate cancer.

✓Prostate cancer in 3 generations on the same side of the family.

✓2 or more close relatives, such as a parent, sibling, child, grandparent, uncle, or nephew, on the same side of the family diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 55.

Symptoms of prostate cancer


The signs or symptoms of prostate cancer include:

✓more frequent urination (called urinary frequency), especially at night

✓a strong or sudden urge to urinate (called urinary urgency)

✓trouble starting the flow of urine and straining to urinate

✓weak or slow urine stream

✓interrupted urine stream

✓being unable to empty the bladder completely

✓difficulty starting the urine stream (straining)

✓having difficulty controlling the bladder (called incontinence), which can cause urine to leak and dribble

✓blood in the urine

✓burning or pain during urination

✓blood in the semen

✓painful ejaculation

✓trouble getting an erection (called erectile dysfunction)

✓pain or stiffness in the bones of the hips, back or chest

✓weakness or numbness in the legs or feet

✓loss of bowel control

✓a cough that doesn’t go away or shortness of breath

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